Project Related Terminology

Behavioral Disinhibition (BD) An inability to resist expressing inappropriate or restricted behavior, which often manifests in a combination of ways including conduct disorder problems, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, novelty seeking behavior, HIV related risk taking behavior, and substance experimentation.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs pronounced snips) DNA sequence variations occurring when a single nucleotide — A, T, C, or G — in the genome differs between individuals. For example, the following are 2 sequenced DNA fragments (8 nucleotides) from 2 different individuals: AAGCCTA & AAGCTTA. They contain a difference in a single nucleotide. These differences in genetic sequences are what make individuals genetically unique. There are approximately 3.3 billion nucleotides in the human genome.

Brain Regions of Interest (ROIs) A specific area of the brain that is targeted in neuroimaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)studies. Certain regions of the brain are responsible for certain behaviors, and ROIs thought to be associated with behavioral disinhibition include the prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum.

Genome Wide Association (GWAS) A genome-wide association study is an approach that involves rapidly scanning markers across the complete sets of DNA, or genomes, of many people to find genetic variations associated with a particular trait or traits.

HIV HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS. This virus may be passed from one person to another when infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions come in contact with an uninfected person’s broken skin or mucous membranes. In addition, infected pregnant women can pass HIV to their baby during pregnancy or delivery, as well as through breast-feeding. People with HIV have what is called HIV infection. Some of these people will develop AIDS as a result of their HIV infection.

AIDS - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

Acquired – means that the disease is not hereditary but develops after birth from contact with a disease causing agent (in this case, HIV).

Immunodeficiency – means that the disease is characterized by a weakening of the immune system.

Syndrome – refers to a group of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease. In the case of AIDS this can include the development of certain infections and/or cancers, as well as a decrease in the number of certain cells in a person’s immune system.